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Library Research at Seneca

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations for various books, articles, and other sources on a topic. The annotated bibliography looks like a Works Cited/References page but includes an annotation after each source cited. An annotation is a short summary and/or critical evaluation of a source. Annotated bibliographies can be part of a larger research project, or can be a stand-alone report in itself.

Types of Annotations

 A summary annotation describes the source by answering the following questions: who wrote the document, what does the document discuss, when and where was the document written, why was the document produced, and how was it provided to the public. The focus is on description. 

 An evaluative annotation includes a summary as listed above but also critically assesses the work for accuracy, relevance, and quality. Evaluative annotations can help you learn about your topic, develop a thesis statement, decide if a specific source will be useful for your assignment, and determine if there is enough valid information available to complete your project. The focus is on description and evaluation. You may want to use the CRAAP questions for evaluating a source as a jumping off point to think about your source. 

Annotated bibliographies can be both summary and evaluative annotations.

How to Write an Annotation

  1. Cite the source using MLA or APA style.
  2. All lines should be double-spaced. Do not add an extra line between the citations.
  3. Start with the same format as a regular Works Cited/References list.
  4. Each annotation should be one paragraph, between three to six sentences long (about 150- 200 words).
  5. Describe the main ideas, arguments, themes, theses, or methodology, and identify the intended audience.
  6. Use the third person (e.g., he, she, the author) instead of the first person (e.g., I, my, me)
  7. Explain the author’s expertise, point of view, and any bias he/she may have.
  8. Compare to other sources on the same topic that you have also cited to show similarities and differences.
  9. Explain why each source is useful for your research topic and how it relates to your topic.
  10. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each source.
  11. Identify the observations or conclusions of the author. 
  12. Try to be objective, and give explanations if you state any opinions.
 Remember: Annotations are original descriptions that you create after reading the document. When researching, you may find journal articles that provide a short summary at the beginning of the text. This article abstract is similar to a summary annotation. You may consult the abstract when creating your evaluative annotation, but never simply copy it as that would be considered plagiarism. 

Annotated Bibliography Templates from Seneca Libraries


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